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Week 4: General Rules For Adding Suffixes

Some General Rules for Adding Suffixes


Those of you who have read my last blog, may have noticed a certain pattern when adding the suffixes. Here are some very general rules that will help you correctly spell many words; however,remember that there are exceptions to these rules and as a speller you should always be on the lookout for them.


Rule 1. If a root word ends with a consonant (not a y- see rule for adding a suffix to a word ending in y), just add the suffix:


ail + -ment = ailment

assign+ -ment  = assignment

bombard + -ment = bombardment

brother +-hood = brotherhood

damp  + -ness = dampness

doubt + -ful = doubtful

defend + able = defendable

material + -ize = materialize

reach + -ing = reaching

corrupt + -ible = corruptible

tow + -ing = towing


Rule 2.  If a single syllable word ends in a short vowel sound followed by a consonant double the consonant before adding a suffix that begins with a vowel. Doubling the consonant keeps the vowel sound short:

hop + -ing = hopping              run + -er = runner

   skip + -ed = skipped              wrap + -er = wrapper



Rule 3.  For most words with more than one syllable that end with a single ‘l’ , double the ‘l’ before adding a suffix:


control + -ed = controlled          fulfil + -ment =fulfillment

propel + -er = propeller         compel + -ing = compelling



Rule 4. ‘y’ to ‘i’rule.

When you add a suffix to a word that ends in a consonant + y, change the ‘y’ to an ‘i’ before adding the suffix.

You can find quite a few examples in my week 3 blog.


Exception to this rule:

Keep the ‘y’ if you are adding the suffix –ing to a word that ends in ‘y’(to avoid having two ‘i’s’).


aerify+ -ing = aerifying                    decay + -ing = decaying

purify + -ing = purifying             qualify + -ing =qualifying


Rule 5. Silent ‘e’ rule

1. When adding a suffix that begins with a vowel or a ‘y’ to a word which ends in a silent –e, you usually drop the –e before adding the suffix:

hike + -ing = hiking                 placate + -ory =placatory

imagine + -ary = imaginary       noise + -y = noisy



An exception to the silent –e rule:

In most words that end in –ce or –ge, keep the end

–e when adding a suffix that begins with ‘a’ or ‘o’. This keeps the sound of ‘c’ and ‘g’ soft (\s\ or \j\).


deforce + -or = deforceor

embrace + -or = embraceor

outrage + -ous = outrageous

peace + -able = peaceable

salvage + -able = salvageable

venge + -ance = vengeance

   Note that in deforceor and embraceor, the –eor is actually a French suffix that has been retained in




2. You do not drop the –e if adding a suffix that begins with a consonant:

excite + -ment = excitement                  hate + -ful = hateful

supreme + -ness = supremeness



Some exceptions to 2.  are:

a few words ending in –ue to which the suffix –ly has been added: duly,truly,unduly, untruly BUT bluely.

Also, wholly(this word has a variant wholley).

Words ending in dge + -ment :

e.g. acknowledgment, dislodgment, judgment.

      However, in Merriam Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, words ending in –dge have variant spellings that retain the –e.



Rule 6.

1) When adding a suffix that begins with a vowel to a word that has more than one syllable, ends in a consonant, and has the stress on the last syllable; double the last consonant.


abhor + -ent = abhorrent (the stress is on ‘hor)       

begin + -ing = beginning (the stress is on ‘gin)

defer + -al = deferral (the stress is on ‘fer)


Some exceptions are allowance, allowable,

foreknowable, renewable, and reviewable.

      You will notice that they end in w. It is interesting to note the the combination ‘ww’ mainly occurs in compound words.


2) Do not double the last consonant for a word that has more than one syllable when the stress on the last syllable is not or does not remain on the last syllable when adding a suffix that begins with a vowel.

refer + -ence = reference (the stress on ‘fer shifts to ‘re when you add the suffix –ence).  

confer + -ence = conference (the stress on ‘fer shifts to ‘con when you add the suffix –ence)

offer + -ing = offering (the stress is not on fer)  

suffer + -ance = sufferance (the stress is not on fer)



Well, that’s all for this week. Continue working on Spell It and maintaining a list of the words that trip you up.

Week 3: Adding Suffixes (1)


This week, let’s look at how to add a few common suffixes to a word. Just a reminder- the reference dictionary I am using is Merriam Webster’s Third International Dictionary.


A. Adding the suffix –ful (pronounced \fəl\ or \fu̇l\):


As an adjective suffix, -ful means full of, characterized by, having the qualities of.

As a noun suffix, -ful means number or quantity that fills.


1. Notice that there is only one ‘l’ at the end of this suffix.

Overfull is the only word that I came across that has two ‘l’s as the main entry.

Brimful,handful, skyful, and topful have two ‘l’s’ as a variant spelling; in my experience, variant spellings have not been asked in a spelling bee. I would suggest sticking to the main entries, if you decide you want to learn words that have variant spellings.

There are also a few hyphenated words that are spelled with two ‘l’s: bank-full, bung-full, chock-full, cram-full, and hawse-full. In my experience, hyphenated words have not been asked in a spelling bee.


2. If the base word ends in a consonant + y, then change

the –y to an –i before adding the suffix –ful.

beauty + -ful = beautiful            bounty + -ful = bountiful

duty + -ful = dutiful             fancy +-ful = fanciful

mercy + -ful = merciful        pity + -ful =pitiful

bellyful is an exception to this rule.


3. If the base word ends in a vowel + y, then just add the suffix –ful.

joy + -ful = joyful           dismay + -ful = dismayful

play + -ful = playful       toy + -ful = toyful



4. For most other words just add –ful to the base word.

Some examples are: artful, baleful, baneful,

doubtful, faithful, guileful, mugful, zestful.


To summarize: When a word ends in a consonant + y, the y changes to i when adding the suffix –ful. For other words, the base word does not change when adding the suffix –ful.


B.               Adding the suffix –ness(pronounced \nə̇s\):


-ness is a noun suffix meaning : state, condition, quality or degree.


1. For most words that do not end in a –y, and for a single syllable word that ends in -y just add the suffix –ness:

abstemious + -ness = abstemiousness

blissful + -ness = blissfulness

capricious + -ness = capriciousness

sagacious + -ness = sagaciousness


coy + -ness = coyness         dry + -ness = dryness

fly + -ness = flyness             shy + -ness = shyness  

wry + -ness = wryness


even + -ness = evenness       mean + -ness = meanness

sudden + -ness = suddenness


2. For most words ending in -y that have more than one syllable, change the –y to an - i before adding the suffix


airy + -ness = airiness         baggy + -ness = bagginess

crafty + -ness = craftiness     dirty + -ness = dirtiness

dilatory + -ness = dilatoriness

extraordinary + -ness = extraordinariness

fidgety + -ness = fidgetiness          wispy + -ness = wispiness

grouchy + -ness = grouchiness


Some exceptions:

·      busyness (do not confuse with business), cityness, manyness,uppityness.

·      For words that end in –ay just add –ness: awayness,

everydayness, yesterdayness.

·      Be careful when adding –ness to words ending in


Some remain the same in the main entry: e.g. cageyness, homeyness.

Some drop the e and change the y to an i before adding the suffix –ness in the main entry : clayiness, dopiness.


To summarize:

If a word ending in –y has more than one syllable and does not end in ay, then change the y to an i before adding the suffix –ness. Be careful with the words ending in –ey. 

For other words the base word will remain unchanged when adding the suffix –ness.


C.               Adding the suffix –ly (pronounced \lē\):


-ly as an adjective suffix means 1. like in appearance, manner, or nature e.g. brotherly, regally, womanly.

2. expressing regular recurrence e.g. hourly, yearly, daily.


-ly also changes a word to an adverb in which case it means in a specified manner as in slowly,  fiercely,quietly.


1. Most words that do not end in a –y will not change when adding the suffix –ly: absentmindedly, braggingly,

callously,deviously, malignantly, vigorously, zealously.

Consequently if a base word ends in –l- , there will be two ‘l’s when the suffix –ly:

abysmally, balefully, casually, drolly, fatally, jovially,

kaleidoscopically, manually, pitifully, quizically.

Note that many words where –lly appears are words that have the suffix –ful, -al, -ical (a combination of the suffixes –ic + -al) at the end already.

An exception is the word brittlely(main entry), but it has a variant spelling brittly.


2. For words ending in a consonant and –y that have more than one syllable,  you will usually change the –y to –i before adding the suffix –ly:


angry + -ly = angrily             chatty + -ly = chattily

dainty + -ly = daintily                 frisky + -ly = friskily

glassy + -ly = glassily          haughty + -ly = haughtily

extemporary + -ly = extemporarily


3. For words ending in a consonant and –le, usually the –e is dropped before adding the suffix –ly.


feeble + ly = feebly                   gentle + ly = gently simple+ ly = simply                       triple + ly = triply


Note that this includes words ending in –ible and –able which will change to –ibly and –ably: abominably, audibly, believably,charitably,credibly,miserably, ostensibly,respectably, visibly.


Some exceptions: unshyly and words ending in –phlyly,

-dactyly, and styly.

Note that dactyl- comes from dactylos(Greek) meaning finger e.g. arachnodactyly, brachydactyly;

-styly can come from the corresponding word ending in

–stylic meaning being or having a certain type of connection of the jaw and skull, or –styly meaning condition of having such or so many styles;

e.g. autostyly, tristyly; -phlyly comes from a combination of phyl-(meaning tribe, race or phylum) with –y

e.g. homophyly.

      There are very few exceptions.


4. A few other words ending in –e drop the –e when adding –ly e.g. duly,truly.


Did you notice a general rule  that might apply to adding a suffix to a word that ends in a consant + y?

Remember, as a speller you want to watch out for exceptions to rules as you go through your word lists.



Next week, I will be going over some more suffix rules.

Week 1: Learning How To Study For The Spelling Bee

Hello everyone,

Welcome to my blog. School is well underway, and for those of you who want to try to make it to the Scripps National Spelling Bee, it is time to get started –if you have not already done so. I would primarily like to address the first timers in this week’s blog; although returning spellers might find some of the information useful.

One of the questions that I have been asked over and over again by parents of young spellers is “Where do I start?” and “How do I start?”

First of all, find out when your school is participating in the Scripps Spelling Bee. Next, find out when your school is planning to hold its spelling bee, and see whether you can obtain the list they will be handing out. Start studying this list.

Simultaneously, start on the “Spell It” released by National Scripps to your school -if your school has it.This booklet has some great spelling tips –be sure to go through them and make use of the links for definitions and pronunciations  of these words.

It is extremely important to keep a running list of the words that you misspell; whether you use a notebook, quizlet, word document or anything else- is up to you. The important aspect is to underline the letter(s) that tripped you up and figure out how to not make the same mistake again. This truly is your job as a speller(or parent of a young speller) because each individual has his or her own way of learning this. Some general questions you coud ask yourself are: Is this a connecting vowel? Is the letter part of a standard prefix or suffix? What is the root of this word?

It is worth learning the common roots, especially in Latin and Greek words.

The next question, I am usually asked is whether there is a systematic way of studying words. Let me demonstrate this by referring to some Latin words from Spell It 2014. You can use the same approach with words in the 2015 Spell it.

Before I start, let me say this. I know from experience that a child really does not enjoy looking up words in a dictionary- it is extremely time consuming. Depending on how serious you are as a speller you could do one of the following:

·       If you are planning to only concentrate on the words in Spell It, follow the links to study the pronunciation and definitions of the word.

·       If you are serious about competing in spelling over the next few years subscribe to Merriam Websters Third Internation Dictionary online since it will give you all the pronunciations and word roots for the word.

·       If you are in between the two, then look up the words on a free online dictionary-either Merriam Webster or The latter has a feature,  where the word is pronounced.


If you are a first time speller, and are not familiar with the diacritical  markings, learn the standard ones first. Here are the standard ones I used with Samir. If you are familiar with diacritical markings, you can skip this portion.

Now let’s get started. The word is listed first, followed by the part of speech, the standard pronunciation within slashes (generally at a school bee, area bee, or regional bee, alternate pronunciation of a word will not be given),  and then a short definition. There is no need to memorize the whole definition, read it and then remember the key word(s).

Finally, I will give some tips based on that word, that can be used for other words. My comments are in italics.


inane: \i|nān\: adjective:Lacking significance, meaning or profundity. Empty.

Just remember lacking meaning- this really covers the gist of all the meanings. There is no common root in this word. The end –e is responsible for the long sound \ā\.

        Separate the word into syllables when spelling:  in-ane.

        Now scan the rest of the words on this page do see if there are any words with the ending –ane. There are not, so move on to another word.


ambivalent:  \am’bivələnt\: showing contradictory feelings.

In the etymology of this word you will see ambi- listed. The hyphen lets you know that this is a prefix.This is a good time to learn that  ambi- means both. Generally when you are ambivalent about something, you are fluctuating between two feelings.

Now scan for words that seem to have similar roots. You have ambiguity so learn this at the same time.


ambiguity: \ambə̇’gyü d.ē\  (notice that –t- makes the sound\d\):noun: uncertainty of meaning or intention.

        Do you see the role of ambi- in this word?

        -ity,  pronounced \əd.ē\   or \ətē\ , is a noun suffix meaning quality, state, degree.

        Now scan the rest of the page to see if you can see any words with similar components. Learn affinity, unity, and fidelity at the same time since they all have the suffix –ity.


incriminate: \ə̇n’krimə,nāt\: verb: to charge with a crime or fault; to charge with involvement in something undesirable.

Notice the schwa is spelled by an –i-. What word do you know with a similar meaning that can help you remember this –i-? Most of you will be familiar with the word criminal; this could help you remember the –i-; or if you like learning roots, you can see that crimin- is the root for crime in Latin.

When spelling this word, pracitice spelling it in syllables:


in2- is a prefix meaning in:within:toward:into: on.This prefix appears in innate. Be careful with intractable, incorruptible, and incredulous since the prefix –in1 is a different prefix meaning not.



interrupt: \,intə’rəpt\: verb: to interfere with the continuation of something.

inter- is a prefix that means between, and rupt- is from the Latin root rumpere meaning to break. Younger spellers can remember that any word with –rupt- will have to do with breaking in some way. For example, when you are interrupting someone you are ‘breaking’ their flow of doing something.

Note that in the word interrupt, the two r’s  exist since one is the end of a prefix, and the other is the beginning of the next root.

Spell the word in syllables: in-ter-rupt.

When you scan the list you will see the word rupture which means to break.Learn it along with this word so that you can remember that a word with –rupt- will relate to breaking in some way.


amicable: \’amə̇kəbəl\: adjective: friendly.

Note: -able and –ible are adjective suffixes that mean capable of, or tending to. amicus in Latin means friend.Do you see how this ties into the definiton of amicable?

Spell the word in syllables: a-mic-a-ble

At this time you could learn the –ible and –able words on the list as well as the roots\prefixes that appear in them.


magnanimous: \mag|nanəməs\: adjective: showing courageous spirit, nobility of feeling, or generosity.

        This word has three components: the first is the stem magn- from magnus meaning great, the second in the stem anim- from animus meaning spirit, and the third is the adjective suffix  -ous which in means full of, possessing the qualities of.Literally this word means full of great  spirit.

        Spell the word in syllables: mag-nan-i-mous.

This would be a good time to learn the word animosity.


omnivorous: \äm|niv(ə)rəs \: adjective: 1. eating everything.

2. avidly taking in everything as if devouring.

Here I would like to point out that many words have what I like to refer to as “Extended meanings.” What I mean is this:

The common meaning is the first meaning. The second meaning can be thought of as an extrapolated\extended\abstract meaning since it means you are avidly taking in something with your eyes or mind, not necessarily eating it physically.

I would suggest that advanced spellers learn to associate the abstract meaning of a word  with the its more commonly known meaning.

There are two parts to this word: the prefix omn\omni- meaning all, and the suffix –vorous meaning eating: feeding on. So now if you come across another word with either of these roots you will have a better chance of spelling them!

For example carnivore and herbivore which appear on the same page. You will notice a slight variation in the ending since they are nouns. Here the noun suffix –vore is used which means one that eats.


Now you have a more systematic way of learning words- in groups that have the same prefixes, suffixes, or roots….much easier on your brain. The added benefit to this approach is that many times it can help you piece together unfamiliar words.


Anyway, I hope that this helps some of our younger spellers feel less anxious about learning so many new spelling words.


Till next time.



Jyoti Patel.

Week 2: Adding Common Prefixes

Meaning of the Term Prefix

For the sake of the very young speller, let me go over what a prefix is. A prefix is a group of letters that has a specific meaning, which when placed in front of a base word will change its meaning.

Why Should I Learn Prefixes?

It can help you spell some surprise words correctly.

It can help you understand why a certain letter is doubled in some words.

General Tips for Adding Prefixes

The spelling of the base word (the word that the prefix is being added to does not change.

e.g. Consider the word prefix. Pre- is a prefix meaning before, and is added to the word fix; hence the meaning of prefix as a verb “ to place in front.”

The spelling of most prefixes do not change.

This can help you not only in correctly spelling a word, but also help you in correctly identifying a letter within the prefix. For example let’s take a look at the prefixes dis- and dys. Both of these prefixes are pronounced \dis\. Dis- means : the opposite of or not whereas dys-  means : abnormal, diseased, faulty, or bad. Knowing this will help you correctly identify whether to use the letter ‘i’ or ‘y’ if you pay attention to the definition of the word.

Certain prefixes change the last letter depending on which letter the base word starts with. This can account for a double letter in a word.

ad- (meaning to or toward) usually changes to:

ac-  before c, or q: acclimate,acquit

af-  before f: affix, afforest, affluent

ag-  before g: agglutinate, aggrandize, aggrieve

al-  before l:  allocate, allure

ap-  before p: apperception, applaud, apportion

as- before s: assign, assimilate, assure

at-   before t: attest, attune

ad- can also mean near to or adjacent. In this sense the prefix usually remains ad- in front of a base word.

e.g. adrenal

in-  (meaning not ) usually changes to:

il-  before l: illegal, illegible, illimitable

im-   before b, m, or p: imbalance, immature, immaculate, immortal, impatient, impasse,impossible,

implausible, impractical

ir-  before r: irregular, irrational, irrelevant

in- before other sounds : inactive, inadmissible, incapable,

Note that in- can also mean in, within, inward, into, toward, and on. The n can change to l,m, or p.

e.g. illuminate, immiserization, imperil, impoverish.

I would like to mention that sometimes the base word to which the prefix is being added is not an English word you are familiar with, but rather a Latin or Greek stem.

e.g. in applaud, -plaud is from Latin plaudere meaning to clap or beat. This is why learning common Latin and Greek roots is beneficial.

A prefix ending in the letter with which the base word begins can also account  for the presence of a double letter in some words.

un + necessary = unnecessary

dis + similar = dissimilar

ir + regular = irregular

mis + spell = misspell

Some Common Prefixes


prefix\combining form




a- before consonants

not, without

achromatic,anarchy, anhedonic, atypical,


an- before vowels



on,in, at, in such a condition\manner\state

ablaze,alight, asunder, afoot, asleep



from, away from

abdicate, abduct, abnormal,




ambidextrous, ambilateral, ambivalent



around, on both sides, of both kinds, both

amphibious, amphigenous, amphitheater,




antebellum, antecedent,antechamber, anterevolutionary



one opposing;  serving to prevent or cure

antibiotic, antidote, antipyretic, antiradical



chief, principal, preeminent, extreme, first in time

archangel, archduke, archenemy,



hearing, sound

audition, auditory,auditor



self, self propelling

autoalarm, autobiography, automobile, autonomy



two, twice, on both sides

bicameral, bifurcation, bilateral, bilingual




bilology, biochemistry, biopsy, biorhythm,




abbreviate, breviary, breviped, breviloquent



hundred, hundredth

centimeter, centipede,




chronicle, chronology, chronometer,



around, surrounding, on all sides

circumambulate, circumnavigate,circumscribe, circumvent






com  usually before b,p or m

with, together, jointly

combine, compress, commixture


col before l, cor before r


con before other sounds



against, contrary, in opposition

contraband, contradict,  contrariety



contrary, opposite, adverse

counteract, counterclockwise, counterproductive




cryogen, cryonics, cryophilic



hidden, covered

cryptic, cryptographer, crypt



circle, ring, cycle

cyclogenic, cyclometer,cyclone, cyclothemia



away, from

depart, degenerate,  degrease, dehydration,



across, through

diagonal, diathermy, diadromous



opposite of, deprive of,absence of

disagree, disappear,disarray, dissimilar




dynamic,  dynamo, dynamite, dynasty,



abnormal, diseased, faulty, bad,unfavorable

dyscalculia, dyslexia, dysphagia


en \em

put in,cause to be, provide with

entrust, enable, ennervate, empower




equidistant,equilibrium,equinox, equipollence



well, good

euphoric, eulogy,euphemism, eupeptic



out of \away from \without

exculpate, excavate, exclusion



outside, beyond

extracurricular,extraneous, extraordinary



before, earlier, infront of

foreboding,foreclose, forefather




fructiferous, fructose, fructify



somach, gastric and

gastrology, gastronome, gastronomy




geognosy, geography, geology, geomancy




heterodox, heterogeneous, heteroglossia




homogenize, homophone, homonym



water, hydrogen

hydrant, hydrolysis,hydrophilous,



over, above, excessive

hyperactive, hypertrophy, hyperventilation



under, beneath, less than normal

hypochondria, hypotrophy, hypodynamia



between, among

intermittent, international, intermission




inrtracellular,intramural, intravenous




isomorphic, isosceles, isotope




lithoglyph,lithomancy, lithotomy



word, thought, speech

logogriph, logomachy, logorrhea



large, long

macrobiotics, macrocephalous, macrocosm



large, great

magnify, magnanimous, magnate



bad, evil

malady, malefactor, malevolent



great, large

megacephaly, megaphone, megatherm



small, minute

microscope, micrology,microphagous



incorrectly, badly, opposite of

misidentify, misdeed, misfit, misinform








monarch,monaural,monocle, monopoly



many, multiple,

multifarious, multimedia, multiplex



new, recent

neologism, neophobia,neophyte



not, absence of

nonconformer, nondescript, nonpareil



all, universal

omnilegent,omniscient, omnivorous



straight, vertical, corrective, true

orthodontics, orthodox, orthoepy



all, completely,

panoptic, panorama, panosophist


ped \ pod


pedestal, pedicure, podiatrist








polyarchy,polydactyly, polygon



after, subsequent, later

posterior,postpone, posttreatment




preamble,premonition, presage




pseudonym, pseudology



mind, soul, spirit

psychagogy, psychology, psychomachy







back, again

recogitate, recapitulate, redo



under, below,

subaqueous, subconscious, subordinate




synchronize, sympathy, symphony



distant,  over a distance

telegnosis, telekinesis, telescope




thermometer, thermophyte, thermostat




transducer, transportation, transmissible



not, opposite of

unfurl, unintelligible, unmanageable



one, single

unicorn, unidirectional, unify


vivi(appears as viv in some words)

alive, living





zoogenic, zoology, zoanthropy



As you work through your school list or Spell It, look out for some of these common prefixes. Remember to maintain a list of the words that trip you up, and review them periodically.


Next week, I will go over some rules for adding suffixes.

How to Pronounce Diacritical Markings (For New Spellers)



Schwa indicated by \ə\ is pronounced  like the ‘u’ in umbrella.


The dotted schwa \ə̇\ is pronounced \ə\ like the ‘u’ in umbrella or \i\ like the-i- in igloo.


\ər\  is pronounced like the –er in water.


\əl\ is pronounced like the –le in kettle.


\ən\ is pronounced like the –en in wooden.


\əw\ is usually followed by a vowel symbol and indicates that the vowels are not pronounced as individual sounds, but rather as a sort of blend. For example in the word strenuous the –uou- is represented by the sound \yəwə\.


\a\ represents the short sound of ‘a’ as in apple


\ā\ represent the long sound of  ‘a’ as in plane.



\āⁿ\ gives the  \ā\ sound a slightly nasal quality.


\ä\ sounds like the  ‘a’ in father.


\au̇\ sounds like the ‘ow’ in cow.


\au̇ⁿ\ gives a slight nasal quality to the sound of ‘ow’.


\e\ represents the short sound of ‘e’ as in egg


\ē\ indicates the long sound of ‘e’ as made by the –ee- in bee.


\i\ represents the short sound of ‘i’ as in igloo.


\ī\ represents the long sound of ‘i’ as in hike.


\ō\ represents the long sound of ‘o’ as in home.


\ȯ\ sounds like the ‘aw’ in saw.


\œ\ can be approximated by making the sound \e\ through moderately rounded lips.


\œ̅\ can be approximated by making the sound \ā\ through strongly rounded lips.


\ȯi\ sounds like the ‘oy’ in boy.


\ \ represents the sound of ‘oo’ in wood.


\ü\ represents the sound of ‘oo’ in moon.


\ue\ can be approximated by making the sound \i\ through moderately rounded lips.


\u̅e̅\  can be approximated by making the sound \ē\ through strongly rounded lips.


\yü\ represents the long sound of –u- in cube.


\(y)ü\  means that the  letter  -y- may be pronounced  or not. So this could be pronounced like the word “you” or just as \ü\.


Note that parentheses (   ) around a letter  indicates that

the letter may or may not be  pronounced.







The consonants make their usual sounds unless in a blend or mentioned otherwise.


\ ⁿ\ gives a nasal sound to the preceding vowel.

\ ŋ\ represent the sound made by –ng in wing.

\y\ is a diacritical marking usually used in transcriptions of foreign words only, and means that while pronouncing the previous character the tip of the tongue is positioned as if saying the first sound in yard.




\ch\ represents the sound made by the letters –ch- in “chin”.


\gw\ represents the sound made by the letters –gw- in “Gwen”.



\ sh \ represents the sound made by the letters –sh- in “show”.


\th\ is pronounced like the letters –th- in “thin”.


\th\ is pronounced like the letters  –th- in “the”.


\zh\ is pronounced like the letters –si- in vision.



Stress symbols are indicated by , and ‘.